Appropriations- Act of Congress that allows a federal entity to incur obligations and make payments from the Treasury Department, usually for a set period of time.
Authorization- Act of Congress that establishes or continues a federal program.
Budget Receipts- Money collected from the public, including taxes, court fines, certain license fees, etc.
Continuing Resolution(also known as a CR)- A joint resolution that allows the government to remain funded if a budget is not passed by the close of the fiscal year.
Expenditure- The amount of money actually spent. Expenditures rarely match the actual appropriations for the specific year since some expenditures can include money allocated from previous years' budgets.
Deficit- The amount where outlays exceed budget receipts.
Fiscal Year- The accounting year the budget covers. The federal fiscal year starts on October 1 and ends on September 30.
Obligation- Binding agreement to pay for goods/services/studies/products, etc.
Outlay- Liquidation or disbursement of cash for an obligation.
Sequestration- A procedure to cancel funding within the budget, usually because of spending limits. Money that has been sequestrated cannot be used for obligations or outlays.
Surplus- The amount where budget receipts exceed outlays.