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Glossaries & Dictionaries
Gazetteers (place names)
Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN)
Contains more than one million place names. Includes the vernacular and English names of the place, variant names in other languages, and historical names.
The JewishGen Communities Database and JewishGen Gazetteer
Databases containing the names of all localities in the 54 countries of Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia (based on the U.S. Board on Geographic Names databases) and information on over 6,000 Jewish communities in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, together with Jewish population figures, historical town names and jurisdictions, inset maps, and links to JewishGen resources.
Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names® Online
Contains more than one million place names. Includes the vernacular and English names of the place, variant names in other languages, and historical names. Available as linked open data. The intended audience are the various disciplines that specialize in art, architecture and material culture.
The GeoNames geographical database covers all countries and contains over eight million placenames that are available for download.
NGA GEOnet Names Server (GNS)
The GEOnet Names Server (GNS) is the official repository of standard spellings of all foreign geographic names, sanctioned by the United States Board on Geographic Names (US BGN). The database also contains variant spellings (cross-references), which are useful for finding purposes, as well as non-Roman script spellings of many of these names. All the geographic features in the database contain information about location, administrative division, and quality.