Skip to main content

Citation & Research Management: Best Practice: Citation design

Use a personal content management system to download records, format bibliographies, track citations, enter footnotes or endnotes, add pdfs - to your research.

WHAT are citations?

Citations uniquely identify a published work (e.g. book, article, chapter, web site). They are used in bibliographies, reference lists, articles, databases.
Citing a source allows you to give credit for words, quotes, data, figures, images from an author, a website, a report or another place.

Works Cited and Bibliographies are not the same.
Works Cited: list items you have actually referred to or cited.
Bibliographies: list all of the material you have consulted in preparing your document whether or not you have actually cited the work.

PARTS of a citation

Citations may look different, depending on what is being cited and which style was used to create them. Choose the appropriate style guide for your needs.

Example of an article citation using four different citation styles, notice the common elements.

Author - Ackerly, DD (Ackerly, David D.)

Article Title - Carbon assimilation and habitat segregation in resurrection plants

Source Title (Journal) - FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY

Volume and issue - Volume 29, issue 12

Published: DEC 2015

Page numbers - 1499-1512

DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12462

AMA (American Medical Association):

1.    Alcantara S, de Mello-Silva R, Teodoro GS, Drequeceler K, Ackerly DD, Oliveira RS. Carbon assimilation and habitat segregation in resurrection plants: a comparison between desiccation- and non-desiccation-tolerant species of Neotropical Velloziaceae (Pandanales). Functional Ecology. 2015;29(12):1499-1512.

Bioscience Style:

Alcantara S, de Mello-Silva R, Teodoro GS, Drequeceler K, Ackerly DD, Oliveira RS. 2015. Carbon assimilation and habitat segregation in resurrection plants: a comparison between desiccation- and non-desiccation-tolerant species of Neotropical Velloziaceae (Pandanales). Functional Ecology 29:1499-1512.

CSE, Council of Science Editors:

Alcantara S, de Mello-Silva R, Teodoro GS, Drequeceler K, Ackerly DD, Oliveira RS. Carbon assimilation and habitat segregation in resurrection plants: a comparison between desiccation- and non-desiccation-tolerant species of Neotropical Velloziaceae (Pandanales). Functional Ecology 2015;29(12):1499-1512.

American Psychological Association  (APA) style:
Alcantara, S., de Mello-Silva, R., Teodoro, G. S., Drequeceler, K., Ackerly, D. D., & Oliveira, R. S. (2015). Carbon assimilation and habitat segregation in resurrection plants: a comparison between desiccation- and non-desiccation-tolerant species of Neotropical Velloziaceae (Pandanales). [Article]. Functional Ecology, 29(12), 1499-1512.

Why is citing important

It is important to cite sources you use in your research BECAUSE:

  • To show your reader you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information
  • To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas
  • To avoid plagiarism by quoting words and ideas used by other authors
  • To allow your reader to locate the sources you used by citing them accurately in your paper by way of footnotes, a bibliography or reference list

Citation Styles

Scientific style and format : the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers / Style Manual Committee Council of Science Editors.
http://oskicat.berkeley.edu/record=b21334450~S1

Search using this subject heading to locate many more books on writing styles, bibliographies, and more.

Technical writing -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.

Copyright © 2014-2016 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is subject to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License.