Based on detailed surveys, data on household medical expenditures by specific condition. Data on specific health services that Americans use, how frequently they use them, the cost of these services, and how they are paid for, as well as data on the cost, scope, and breadth of health insurance held by and available to U.S. workers. Summary tables available by disease also. From the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ.
Healthcare industry data covering longer time periods are available for download from Wharton Research Data Service's Public dataset (available only inside the Haas building, request a day pass from WRDS using your UC Berkeley email address.) Datasets available:
HCUP (Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project) Diagnoses and Procedures - can filter by major diagnoses/procedure categories and get data by mean/median charges and outcomes.
MEPS (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey) Expenditures: expenditures by health care service (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurance), insurance expenditures, medical condition expenditures, per health incident cost, expenditures by length of hospital stay, expenditures for top prescribed drugs and drug classes.