Skip to main content
The animation above shows an article cited in the APA format (view non-animated version).
To distinguish an article from other kinds of sources, look for:
- A journal title in addition to an article title
- Numbers for volume and/or issue, and sometime issue dates or seasons (e.g. Spring 2014).
- Page numbers
- No place of publication or publisher name is listed
Citations for articles accessed online often list the article's stable URL at the end of the citation:
- Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/phr.2003.72.4.669
The animation above shows a book cited in the APA format (view non-animated version).
To distinguish a book from other kinds of sources, look for:
- Place of publication (e.g. Berkeley, CA)
- Publisher name (e.g. Ten Speed Press)
- No dates, other than a year, are usually included
The animation above shows a single chapter from a book cited in the APA format (view non-animated version).
To distinguish a book chapter from other kinds of sources, look for:
- Chapter/essay title and book title
- Author and editor name(s)
- Page numbers for the chapter
- Publisher name and place of publication
How to Avoid Plagiarism
In order to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit when
- You use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories.
- You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, etc., or any other type of information that does not comprise common knowledge.
- You use quotations from another person's spoken or written word.
- You paraphrase another person's spoken or written word.
- Begin the writing process by stating your ideas; then go back to the author's original work.
- Use quotation marks and credit the source (author) when you copy exact wording.
- Use your own words (paraphrase) instead of copying directly when possible.
- Even when you paraphrase another author's writings, you must give credit to that author.
- If the form of citation and reference are not correct, the attribution to the original author is likely to be incomplete. Therefore, improper use of style can result in plagiarism. Get a style manual and use it.
- The figure below may help to guide your decisions.
This content is part of the Understanding Plagiarism tutorial created by the Indiana University School of Education.
Citing Your Sources
The UCB Library Guide to Citing Your Sources discusses why you should cite your sources and links to campus resources about plagiarism. It also includes links to guides for frequently used citation styles. Also:
Citation Management Tools
Citation management tools help you manage your research, collect and cite sources, organize and store your PDFs, and create bibliographies in a variety of citation styles. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses, but all are easier than doing it by hand!
- Zotero: A free plug-in for the Firefox browser: keeps copies of what you find on the web, permits tagging, notation, full text searching of your library of resources, works with Word, and has a free web backup service. Zotero is also available as a stand-alone application that syncs with Chrome and Safari, or as a bookmarklet for mobile browsers.
- RefWorks - web-based and free for UC Berkeley users. It allows you to create your own database by importing references and using them for footnotes and bibliographies, then works with Word to help you format references and a bibliography for your paper. Use the RefWorks New User Form to sign up.
- EndNote: Desktop software for managing your references and formatting bibliographies. You can purchase EndNote from the Cal Student Store.
Tip: After creating a bibliography with a citation management tool, it's always good to double check the formatting; sometimes the software doesn't get it quite right.