The Scholarly Societies Project lists international scholarly societies in different fields and provides links to their websites. There should be some history of the Society on the website that will tell you when it was founded. The site will also list the Society's publications. There may be an online archive linked from the site, but most likely the publications will be in the Library's holdings, either electronically or in print.
The Scholarly Societies Project also includes a section on the oldest Scholarly Societies, and for each society listed is their primary journal. This is particularly helpful because the author of the site lists in chronological order the many title variations that occur, information you may need to track down the journal.
Some examples of the types of publications you may find include:
Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society of London)
Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society