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JOUR 226: Library Resources for Science Reporting: Starting

Help with quick effective literature searching, finding basic statistical information about a community, online news sources, and more

Welcome!

public health library ceiling; click for public health library home page

guides.lib.berkeley.edu/publichealth/jour226

Presented by Michael Sholinbeck (msholinb@library.berkeley.edu)

Here are the class handouts:

  Database exercise: DOCX | PDF
  Statistics practice: DOCX | PDF

Before You Start: Your Topic, the Scope of Your Search, Where to Look

What causes disease? 

How you conceptualize your topic affects how you search for relevant information.

Consider first perhaps the interaction of environmental factors (eg, pollution, outbreaks) and social factors (eg, smoking, drug use). But it's useful to think "upstream" when conceptualizing a topic.

Example:

  • Is exacerbation of asthma in West Oakland "caused" by air pollution and/or tobacco smoke? 
  • Or, is it "caused" by inadequate regulation of transportation, energy production, and tobacco? 
  • Or by historical racism in housing and neighborhood characteristics? 
  • What about genetic factors? poverty? stress? 
  • What about access to appropriate prescription drugs, including health insurance status and proximity to a pharmacy? 

Think about the wider context of your topic and do some preliminary exploration, both in the literature and in discussions with your teachers, advisors, peers, and other knowledgeable people. What are the relevant scientific and policy circumstances?

Is your topic researchable? 

You may need to broaden or narrow the focus of your topic. 
This may become more apparent as you search for and find information. It may prove difficult to find research on very narrow topics, or to cope with the vast literature on an un-focused, broad topic.

  1. "The harmful effects of domestic beer consumption among female students at Cal's Big Game"
  2. "Social factors contributing to binge drinking among college students in the United States"
  3. "Alcohol consumption by young adults" 

What is the scope of your search? 

Literature searching always involves balancing finding all relevant citations (which means you may also find many non-relevant citations) with finding only relevant citations (which means you may miss some relevant citations). 

The search scope, as well as the purpose and audience of your literature search, influences how you focus your search when using online databases, as well as when you decide you have "enough." For journalism, often desired is a focused search to find key research on a topic.

Remember that research is not a linear process; you may find yourself modifying your search terms as you explore your topic.

Which disciplines are concerned with your topic? Which aspect(s) - legal, political, environmental, behavioral etc. - of your topic is/are of interest? 

Answering these questions will help you decide which databases to search for literature. Although PubMed may be the best place to start for public health topics, you may miss key literature if you do not use other resources. 

A bit on the importance of indexing . . .

  • Do you want articles on labor (as in work) or articles on labor (as in giving birth)? Or is it labour
  • Is lead a noun or a verb?
  • Indexing facilitates more precise search statements, especially for topics that are vague or ambiguous. 
  • Using index terms also helps you avoid the need to think of every possible synonym or alternate spelling of your search terms. 
  • Indexing means the citations in the database are assigned terms from a controlled vocabulary; not all databases use a controlled vocabulary, however. 
  • Index terms are sometimes called descriptors or thesaurus terms; in PubMed they are called Medical Subject Headings, or MeSH

What to consider as you find articles and other documents:

  • What question/s is/are being addressed?
  • What is the contribution to the field of knowledge of each?
  • What are their methods and are they valid?
  • What are their relationships to other works?
  • What are the gaps in knowledge?

Critically Evaluating What You Find

What is evidence?
All research is (potentially) "evidence" and there are no "perfect" studies. 
Critically evaluating what you read will help any unearth biases or methodological shortcomings that may be present.
Be especially wary of any study touted as a "breakthrough." Pay attention to trends and incremental advances instead.

Is there an agenda (bias)?
It's doubtful that any study of humans is without some kind of bias, either in the study design, or in the author's pre-existing beliefs. How bias in methodology was controlled and the significance of bias in any particular study is what's relevant. 

Things to consider:

  • The question being addressed: What kind of research gets funded?
  • Related: examine the difference between "this works" and "this is the best approach"
  • Publication bias: Research that shows no effect tends not to get published
  • Conflict of interest, author affiliation, source(s) of funding: Does the researcher have a vested interest in the outcome?
  • Documentation and assumptions: Are all stated "facts" referenced?
  • Peer review: Is the article peer-reviewed? Does it matter? (Remember that articles reporting studies are often peer reviewed; review articles often are not. 
  • Authority: Does the researcher have the knowledge to work in this area?
  • Significance of a single study: Science is an incremental process; one study rarely "changes everything"

Who pays for science? Does it matter?  (There is evidence that it does matter)
Research may be funded by:

  • Government
  • Industry/trade groups
  • Private foundations/associations
  • etc.

This article (PDF) discusses the "manufactured uncertainty" created by industry groups that sponsor research and publishing on chemicals.

Is qualitative research "evidence"?
» If your goal is to understand beliefs and meanings in the group with whom you are working, then qualitative studies can be important.

Reliability and validity
Reliable data collection: relatively free from "measurement error." 
» Is the survey written at a reading level too high for the people completing it? 
» If I measure something today, then measure it again tomorrow using the same scale, will it vary? Why? 
Validity refers to how well a measure assesses what it claims to measure 
» If the survey is supposed to measure "quality of life," how is that concept defined? Is it measurable? 
(Adopted from Chapter 3, Conducting research literature reviews : from the Internet to paper, by Arlene Fink; Sage, 2010.)
Extensive discussions of reliability and validity are available in several texts, such as Textbook in Psychiatric Epidemiology (3rd Ed.; M. Tsuang et al. Wiley. 2011; See chapters 5 and 7).

What to consider when looking at survey or estimated data:

  • Look at sample sizes and survey response rates - representative of your population? Enough responses to be valid?
  • Who was surveyed? - representative of population being compared to? Include group you are interested in?
  • Were the survey respondents from heterogeneous groups? Do the survey questions have a similar meaning to members of different groups?
  • How was survey conducted? Via telephone? - Many people only have cell phones. Random selection or targeted group?
  • What assumptions and methods were used for extrapolating the data?
  • Look at definitions of characteristics - Does this match your own definitions?
  • When was the data collected?

Here are a few citations (.doc) on the above topics

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