A note about the data sources below:
Beginning January 20, content on US government websites has been removed or revised for nonscientific reasons. If any of the websites on this guide have had data removed, viewing previous versions of the websites on the Internet Archive may prove helpful.
The US Census is the primary source of demographic information (population, household size, income, business ownership, etc) for the United States. An excellent guide to the US Census, including the American Community Survey (ACS) is at guides.lib.berkeley.edu/USCensus. A more specific guide to Census poverty data is at guides.lib.berkeley.edu/poverty.
US Census surveys include:
The following databases and websites allow researchers to access Census aggregated statistics (statistics that you can process into easy to use tables).
NCHS data collection systems includes population surveys (sometimes combined with physical examinations, lab tests, & more), provider surveys, and vital statistics. Below are summaries of the current systems. More information is available at cdc.gov/nchs/surveys.htm and tinyurl.com/h9zntf8 (PDF)
Information on historical NCHS surveys is available at cdc.gov/nchs/surveys.htm#tabs-1139715-4