A Course in Cryptography by Heiko KnospeThis book provides a compact course in modern cryptography. The mathematical foundations in algebra, number theory and probability are presented with a focus on their cryptographic applications. The text provides rigorous definitions and follows the provable security approach. The most relevant cryptographic schemes are covered, including block ciphers, stream ciphers, hash functions, message authentication codes, public-key encryption, key establishment, digital signatures and elliptic curves. The current developments in post-quantum cryptography are also explored, with separate chapters on quantum computing, lattice-based and code-based cryptosystems. Many examples, figures and exercises, as well as SageMath (Python) computer code, help the reader to understand the concepts and applications of modern cryptography. A special focus is on algebraic structures, which are used in many cryptographic constructions and also in post-quantum systems. The essential mathematics and the modern approach to cryptography and security prepare the reader for more advanced studies. The text requires only a first-year course in mathematics (calculus and linear algebra) and is also accessible to computer scientists and engineers. This book is suitable as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in cryptography as well as for self-study.
Call Number: QA268 .K5827 2019
A First Journey Through Logic by Martin Hils; François LoeserThe aim of this book is to present mathematical logic to students who are interested in what this field is but have no intention of specializing in it. The point of view is to treat logic on an equal footing to any other topic in the mathematical curriculum. The book starts with a presentation of naive set theory, the theory of sets that mathematicians use on a daily basis. Each subsequent chapter presents one of the main areas of mathematical logic: first order logic and formal proofs, model theory, recursion theory, Godel's incompleteness theorem, and, finally, the axiomatic set theory. Each chapter includes several interesting highlights--outside of logic when possible--either in the main text, or as exercises or appendices. Exercises are an essential component of the book, and a good number of them are designed to provide an opening to additional topics of interest.
Call Number: QA9 .H52445 2019
A Mathematician's Practical Guide to Mentoring Undergraduate Research by Michael Dorff; Allison K. Henrich; Lara PudwellA Mathematician's Practical Guide to Mentoring Undergraduate Research is a complete how-to manual on starting an undergraduate research program. Readers will find advice on setting appropriate problems, directing student progress, managing group dynamics, obtaining external funding, publishing student results, and a myriad of other relevant issues. The authors have decades of experience and have accumulated knowledge that other mathematicians will find extremely useful. This book is a wonderful resource for those interested in engaging undergraduates in research. The authors' extensive experience in mentoring undergraduates in research is evident throughout. --Joseph A. Gallian, Director of the University of Minnesota Duluth REU, Former President of MAA, Former Director of MAA Project NExT You do not need to be a mathematician to appreciate ``A Mathematician's Practical Guide to Mentoring Undergraduate Research''. The book is filled with useful information, advice, and ideas for faculty engaging in undergraduate research based on the most successful ideas from the undergraduate research community. -- Julio Rivera, Emeritus President of the Council on Undergraduate Research A remarkably entertaining compendium of useful information for anyone interested in mentoring undergraduates in mathematical research. With wisdom gathered over their collective decades of experience, the authors provide a complete starter kit for successful undergraduate research groups in the mathematical sciences. --Kathryn Leonard, Director of the Center for Undergraduate Research in Mathematics at Occidental College This book is published in cooperation with the Council on Undergraduate Research.
Call Number: QA11.2 .D67 2019
Games of No Chance 5 by Urban Larsson (Editor)This book surveys the state-of-the-art in the theory of combinatorial games, that is games not involving chance or hidden information. Enthusiasts will find a wide variety of exciting topics, from a trailblazing presentation of scoring to solutions of three piece ending positions of bidding chess. Theories and techniques in many subfields are covered, such as universality, Wythoff Nim variations, misère play, partizan bidding (a.k.a. Richman games), loopy games, and the algebra of placement games. Also included are an updated list of unsolved problems, extremely efficient algorithms for taking and breaking games, a historical exposition of binary numbers and games by David Singmaster, chromatic Nim variations, renormalization for combinatorial games, and a survey of temperature theory by Elwyn Berlekamp, one of the founders of the field. The volume was initiated at the Combinatorial Game Theory Workshop, January 2011, held at the Banff International Research Station.
Call Number: QA182.5 .G36 2019
Spherical Geometry and Its Applications by Marshall A. WhittleseySpherical Geometry and Its Applications introduces spherical geometry and its practical applications in a mathematically rigorous form. The text can serve as a course in spherical geometry for mathematics majors. Readers from various academic backgrounds can comprehend various approaches to the subject. The book introduces an axiomatic system for spherical geometry and uses it to prove the main theorems of the subject. It also provides an alternate approach using quaternions. The author illustrates how a traditional axiomatic system for plane geometry can be modified to produce a different geometric world - but a geometric world that is no less real than the geometric world of the plane. Features: A well-rounded introduction to spherical geometry Provides several proofs of some theorems to appeal to larger audiences Presents principal applications: the study of the surface of the earth, the study of stars and planets in the sky, the study of three- and four-dimensional polyhedra, mappings of the sphere, and crystallography Many problems are based on propositions from the ancient text Sphaerica of Menelaus
Call Number: QA457 .W5275 2020
100 Years of Math Milestones : the Pi Mu Epsilon Centennial Collection by Stephan Ramon Garcia; Steven J. MillerThis book is an outgrowth of a collection of 100 problems chosen to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the undergraduate math honor society Pi Mu Epsilon. Each chapter describes a problem or event, the progress made, and connections to entries from other years or other parts of mathematics. In places, some knowledge of analysis or algebra, number theory or probability will be helpful. Put together, these problems will be appealing and accessible to energetic and enthusiastic math majors and aficionados of all stripes. Stephan Ramon Garcia is WM Keck Distinguished Service Professor and professor of mathematics at Pomona College. He is the author of four books and over eighty research articles in operator theory, complex analysis, matrix analysis, number theory, discrete geometry, and other fields. He has coauthored dozens of articles with students, including one that appeared in The Best Writing on Mathematics: 2015. He is on the editorial boards of Notices of the AMS, Proceedings of the AMS, American Mathematical Monthly, Involve, and Annals of Functional Analysis. He received four NSF research grants as principal investigator and five teaching awards from three different institutions. He is a fellow of the American Mathematical Society and was the inaugural recipient of the Society's Dolciani Prize for Excellence in Research. Steven J. Miller is professor of mathematics at Williams College and a visiting assistant professor at Carnegie Mellon University. He has published five books and over one hundred research papers, most with students, in accounting, computer science, economics, geophysics, marketing, mathematics, operations research, physics, sabermetrics, and statistics. He has served on numerous editorial boards, including the Journal of Number Theory, Notices of the AMS, and the Pi Mu Epsilon Journal. He is active in enrichment and supplemental curricular initiatives for elementary and secondary mathematics, from the Teachers as Scholars Program and VCTAL (Value of Computational Thinking Across Grade Levels), to numerous math camps (the Eureka Program, HCSSiM, the Mathematics League International Summer Program, PROMYS, and the Ross Program). He is a fellow of the American Mathematical Society, an at-large senator for Phi Beta Kappa, and a member of the Mount Greylock Regional School Committee, where he sees firsthand the challenges of applying mathematics.
Call Number: QA27.U5 G37 2019
Graphs and Geometry by László LovászGraphs are usually represented as geometric objects drawn in the plane, consisting of nodes and curves connecting them. The main message of this book is that such a representation is not merely a way to visualize the graph, but an important mathematical tool. It is obvious that this geometry is crucial in engineering, for example, if you want to understand rigidity of frameworks and mobility of mechanisms. But even if there is no geometry directly connected to the graph-theoretic problem, a well-chosen geometric embedding has mathematical meaning and applications in proofs and algorithms. This book surveys a number of such connections between graph theory and geometry: among others, rubber band representations, coin representations, orthogonal representations, and discrete analytic functions. Applications are given in information theory, statistical physics, graph algorithms and quantum physics. The book is based on courses and lectures that the author has given over the last few decades and offers readers with some knowledge of graph theory, linear algebra, and probability a thorough introduction to this exciting new area with a large collection of illuminating examples and exercises. Geometric representations of graphs lead to significant insights in the study of graph properties and their algorithmic aspects. This book is a thorough study of the subject written by the pioneer of many of the results in the area. It is a fascinating manuscript written by a superb mathematician who is also a fantastic expositor. --Noga Alon, Princeton University and Tel Aviv University A beautiful book, rich in intuition, insights, and examples, from one of the masters of combinatorics, geometry, and graph theory. This book presents old friends of graph theory in a new light and introduces more recent developments, providing connections to many areas in combinatorics, analysis, algorithms, and physics. Those of us who know graph theory still have much to learn from this presentation; for those who are new to the field, the book is a wonderful gift and invitation to participate. --Jennifer Chayes, Microsoft Research Laszlo Lovasz is one of the most prominent experts in discrete mathematics. The book is unique and inspiring for students and researchers as well. The author succeeded to show the wealth and beauty of the subject. --Endre Szemeredi, Rutgers University
Call Number: QA90 .L5885 2019
Geometric Relativity by Dan A. LeeMany problems in general relativity are essentially geometric in nature, in the sense that they can be understood in terms of Riemannian geometry and partial differential equations. This book is centered around the study of mass in general relativity using the techniques of geometric analysis. Specifically, it provides a comprehensive treatment of the positive mass theorem and closely related results, such as the Penrose inequality, drawing on a variety of tools used in this area of research, including minimal hypersurfaces, conformal geometry, inverse mean curvature flow, conformal flow, spinors and the Dirac operator, marginally outer trapped surfaces, and density theorems. This is the first time these topics have been gathered into a single place and presented with an advanced graduate student audience in mind; several dozen exercises are also included. The main prerequisite for this book is a working understanding of Riemannian geometry and basic knowledge of elliptic linear partial differential equations, with only minimal prior knowledge of physics required. The second part of the book includes a short crash course on general relativity, which provides background for the study of asymptotically flat initial data sets satisfying the dominant energy condition.
Call Number: QC173.6 .L44 2019
It's a Numberful World : How Math is Hiding Everywhere ...from the Crown of a Tree to the Sound of a Sine Wave by Eddie WooWhy aren't left-handers extinct? What makes a rainbow round? How is a pancreas . . . like a pendulum? Publisher's note: It's a Numberful World was published in Australia under the title Woo's Wonderful World of Maths. These may not look like math questions, but they are--because they all have to do with patterns. And mathematics, at heart, is the study of patterns. That realization changed Eddie Woo's life--by turning the "dry" subject he dreaded in high school into a boundless quest for discovery. Now an award-winning math teacher, Woo sees patterns everywhere: in the "branches" of blood vessels and lightning, in the growth of a savings account and a sunflower, even in his morning cup of tea! Here are twenty-six bite-size chapters on the hidden mathematical marvels that encrypt our email, enchant our senses, and even keep us alive--from the sine waves we hear as "music" to the mysterious golden ratio. This book will change your mind about what math can be. We are all born mathematicians--and It's a Numberful World.
Call Number: QA93 .W597 2019
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Introduction to Statistical Decision Theory : Utility Theory and Causal Analysis by Silvia Bacci; Bruno ChiandottoIntroduction to Statistical Decision Theory: Utility Theory and Causal Analysisprovides the theoretical background to approach decision theory from a statistical perspective. It covers both traditional approaches, in terms of value theory and expected utility theory, and recent developments, in terms of causal inference. The book is specifically designed to appeal to students and researchers that intend to acquire a knowledge of statistical science based on decision theory. Features Covers approaches for making decisions under certainty, risk, and uncertainty Illustrates expected utility theory and its extensions Describes approaches to elicit the utility function Reviews classical and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference based on decision theory Discusses the role of causal analysis in statistical decision theory atistical inference based on decision theory Discusses the role of causal analysis in statistical decision theory
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An Invitation to Applied Category Theory : Seven Sketches in Compositionality by Brendan Fong; David I. SpivakCategory theory is unmatched in its ability to organize and layer abstractions and to find commonalities between structures of all sorts. No longer the exclusive preserve of pure mathematicians, it is now proving itself to be a powerful tool in science, informatics, and industry. By facilitating communication between communities and building rigorous bridges between disparate worlds, applied category theory has the potential to be a major organizing force. This book offers a self-contained tour of applied category theory. Each chapter follows a single thread motivated by a real-world application and discussed with category-theoretic tools. We see data migration as an adjoint functor, electrical circuits in terms of monoidal categories and operads, and collaborative design via enriched profunctors. All the relevant category theory, from simple to sophisticated, is introduced in an accessible way with many examples and exercises, making this an ideal guide even for those without experience of university-level mathematics.
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Rank and Pseudo-Rank Procedures for Independent Observations in Factorial Designs : Using R and SAS by Edgar Brunner; Arne C. Bathke; Frank KonietschkeThis book explains how to analyze independent data from factorial designs without having to make restrictive assumptions, such as normality of the data, or equal variances. The general approach also allows for ordinal and even dichotomous data. The underlying effect size is the nonparametric relative effect, which has a simple and intuitive probability interpretation. The data analysis is presented as comprehensively as possible, including appropriate descriptive statistics which follow a nonparametric paradigm, as well as corresponding inferential methods using hypothesis tests and confidence intervals based on pseudo-ranks. Offering clear explanations, an overview of the modern rank- and pseudo-rank-based inference methodology and numerous illustrations with real data examples, as well as the necessary R/SAS code to run the statistical analyses, this book is a valuable resource for statisticians and practitioners alike.
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Prime Suspects : the Anatomy of Integers and Permutations by Andrew Granville, Jennifer Granville ; illustrated by Robert J. LewisAn outrageous graphic novel that investigates key concepts in mathematics Integers and permutations--two of the most basic mathematical objects--are born of different fields and analyzed with separate techniques. Yet when the Mathematical Sciences Investigation team of crack forensic mathematicians, led by Professor Gauss, begins its autopsies of the victims of two seemingly unrelated homicides, Arnie Integer and Daisy Permutation, they discover the most extraordinary similarities between the structures of each body. Prime Suspects is a graphic novel that takes you on a voyage of forensic discovery, exploring some of the most fundamental ideas in mathematics. Travel with Detective von Neumann as he leaves no clue unturned, from shepherds' huts in the Pyrenees to secret societies in the cafés of Paris, from the hidden codes in the music of the stones to the grisly discoveries in Finite Fields. Tremble at the ferocity of the believers in deep and rigid abstraction. Feel the frustration--and the excitement--of our young heroine, Emmy Germain, as she blazes a trail for women in mathematical research and learns from Professor Gauss, the greatest forensic detective of them all. Beautifully drawn and exquisitely detailed, Prime Suspects is unique, astonishing, and witty--a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to experience mathematics like never before.
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The Random Matrix Theory of the Classical Compact Groups by Elizabeth S. MeckesThis is the first book to provide a comprehensive overview of foundational results and recent progress in the study of random matrices from the classical compact groups, drawing on the subject's deep connections to geometry, analysis, algebra, physics, and statistics. The book sets a foundation with an introduction to the groups themselves and six different constructions of Haar measure. Classical and recent results are then presented in a digested, accessible form, including the following: results on the joint distributions of the entries; an extensive treatment of eigenvalue distributions, including the Weyl integration formula, moment formulae, and limit theorems and large deviations for the spectral measures; concentration of measure with applications both within random matrix theory and in high dimensional geometry; and results on characteristic polynomials with connections to the Riemann zeta function. This book will be a useful reference for researchers and an accessible introduction for students in related fields.
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Chance in the World : a Humean Guide to Objective Chance by Carl HoeferProbability has fascinated philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians for hundreds of years. Although the mathematics of probability is, for most applications, clear and uncontroversial, the interpretation of probability statements continues to be fraught with controversy and confusion. Whatdoes it mean to say that the probability of some event X occurring is 31%?In the 20th century a consensus emerged that there are at least two legitimate kinds of probability, and correspondingly at least two kinds of possible answers to this question of meaning. Subjective probability, also called "credence" or "degree of belief" is a numerical measure of the confidenceof some person or some ideal rational agent. Objective probability, or chance, is a fact about how things are in the world.It is this second type of probability with which Carl Hoefer is concerned in this volume, specifically how we can understand the meaning of statements about objective probability. He aims to settle the question of what objective chances are, once and for all, with an account that can meet thedemands of philosophers and scientists alike. For Hoefer, chances are constituted by patterns that can be discerned in the events that happen in our world. These patterns are ideally appropriate guides to what credences limited rational agents, such as ourselves, should have in situations ofimperfect knowledge. By showing this, Hoefer bridges the gap between subjective probability and chance. In a field where few scholars have given adequate treatment to interpreting statements of chance, Hoefer develops a philosophically rich theory which draws on the disciplines of metaphysics,ontology, and philosophy of science.
Call Number: QA273 .H6795 2019
Partial Differential Equations : Methods, Applications, and Theories by Harumi HattoriThis is an introductory level textbook for partial differential equations (PDEs). It is suitable for a one-semester undergraduate level or two-semester graduate level course in PDEs or applied mathematics. This volume is application-oriented and rich in examples. Going through these examples, the reader is able to easily grasp the basics of PDEs. Chapters One to Five are organized to aid understanding of the basic PDEs. They include the first-order equations and the three fundamental second-order equations, i.e. the heat, wave and Laplace equations. Through these equations, we learn the types of problems, how we pose the problems, and the methods of solutions such as the separation of variables and the method of characteristics. The modeling aspects are explained as well. The methods introduced in earlier chapters are developed further in Chapters Six to Twelve. They include the Fourier series, the Fourier and the Laplace transforms, and the Green's functions. Equations in higher dimensions are also discussed in detail. In this second edition, a new chapter is added and numerous improvements have been made including the reorganization of some chapters. Extensions of nonlinear equations treated in earlier chapters are also discussed. Partial differential equations are becoming a core subject in Engineering and the Sciences. This textbook will greatly benefit those studying in these subjects by covering basic and advanced topics in PDEs based on applications.
Measuring Society by Chaitra H. NagarajaCollecting and analyzing data on unemployment, inflation, and inequality help describe the complex world around us. When published by the government, such data are called official statistics. They are reported by the media, used by politicians to lend weight to their arguments, and by economic commentators to opine about the state of society. Despite such widescale use, explanations about how these measures are constructed are seldom provided for a non-technical reader. This Measuring Society book is a short, accessible guide to six topics: jobs, house prices, inequality, prices for goods and services, poverty, and deprivation. Each relates to concepts we use on a personal level to form an understanding of the society in which we live: We need a job, a place to live, and food to eat. Using data from the United States, we answer three basic questions: why, how, and for whom these statistics have been constructed. We add some context and flavor by discussing the historical background. This book provides the reader with a good grasp of these measures. Chaitra H. Nagaraja is an Associate Professor of Statistics at the Gabelli School of Business at Fordham University in New York. Her research interests include house price indices and inequality measurement. Prior to Fordham, Dr. Nagaraja was a researcher at the U.S. Census Bureau. While there, she worked on projects relating to the American Community Survey.
Call Number: QA93 .N3255 2020
Bayesian Statistics for Beginners : a Step-by-step Approach by Therese M. Donovan; Ruth M. MickeyBayesian statistics is currently undergoing something of a renaissance. At its heart is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available. It is an approach that is ideally suited tomaking initial assessments based on incomplete or imperfect information; as that information is gathered and disseminated, the Bayesian approach corrects or replaces the assumptions and alters its decision-making accordingly to generate a new set of probabilities. As new data/evidence becomesavailable the probability for a particular hypothesis can therefore be steadily refined and revised. It is very well-suited to the scientific method in general and is widely used across the social, biological, medical, and physical sciences. Key to this book's novel and informal perspective is itsunique pedagogy, a question and answer approach that utilizes accessible language, humor, plentiful illustrations, and frequent reference to on-line resources.
Call Number: QA279.5 .D66 2019
Mathematical Theory of Scattering Resonances by Semyon Dyatlov; Maciej ZworskiScattering resonances generalize bound states/eigenvalues for systems in which energy can scatter to infinity. A typical resonance has a rate of oscillation (just as a bound state does) and a rate of decay. Although the notion is intrinsically dynamical, an elegant mathematical formulation comes from considering meromorphic continuations of Green's functions. The poles of these meromorphic continuations capture physical information by identifying the rate of oscillation with the real part of a pole and the rate of decay with its imaginary part. An example from mathematics is given by the zeros of the Riemann zeta function: they are, essentially, the resonances of the Laplacian on the modular surface. The Riemann hypothesis then states that the decay rates for the modular surface are all either $0$ or $\frac14$. An example from physics is given by quasi-normal modes of black holes which appear in long-time asymptotics of gravitational waves. This book concentrates mostly on the simplest case of scattering by compactly supported potentials but provides pointers to modern literature where more general cases are studied. It also presents a recent approach to the study of resonances on asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds. The last two chapters are devoted to semiclassical methods in the study of resonances. This is an up to date account of modern mathematical scattering theory with an emphasis on the deep interplay between the location of the scattering poles or resonances, and the underlying dynamics and geometry. The masterful exposition reflects the authors' significant roles in shaping this very active field. A must read for researchers and students working in scattering theory or related areas. --Peter Sarnak, Institute for Advanced Study This is a very broad treatise of the modern theory of scattering resonances, beautifully written with a wealth of important mathematical results as well as applications, motivations and numerical and experimental illustrations. For experts, it will be a basic reference and for non-experts and graduate students an appealing and quite accessible introduction to a fascinating field with multiple connections to other branches of mathematics and to physics. --Johannes Sjostrand, Universite de Bourgogne Resonance is the Queen of the realm of waves. No other book addresses this realm so completely and compellingly, oscillating effortlessly between illustration, example, and rigorous mathematical discourse. Mathematicians will find a wonderful array of physical phenomena given a solid intuitive and mathematical foundation, linked to deep theorems. Physicists and engineers will be inspired to consider new realms and phenomena. Chapters travel between motivation, light mathematics, and deeper mathematics, passing the baton from one to the other and back in a way that these authors are uniquely qualified to do. --Eric J. Heller, Harvard University
Call Number: QA329 .D93 2019
Strong Regularity by Pierre Berger & Jean-Christophe YoccozThe strong regularity program was initiated by Jean-Christophe Yoccoz during his first lecture at Collège de France. As explained in the first article of this volume, this program aims to show the abundance of dynamics displaying a non-uniformly hyperbolic attractor. It proposes a topological and combinatorial definition of such mappings using the formalism of puzzle pieces.
Call Number: QA614.813 .S77 2019
Introduction to Real Analysis by Christopher HeilDeveloped over years of classroom use, this textbook provides a clear and accessible approach to real analysis. This modern interpretation is based on the author's lecture notes and has been meticulously tailored to motivate students and inspire readers to explore the material, and to continue exploring even after they have finished the book. The definitions, theorems, and proofs contained within are presented with mathematical rigor, but conveyed in an accessible manner and with language and motivation meant for students who have not taken a previous course on this subject. The text covers all of the topics essential for an introductory course, including Lebesgue measure, measurable functions, Lebesgue integrals, differentiation, absolute continuity, Banach and Hilbert spaces, and more. Throughout each chapter, challenging exercises are presented, and the end of each section includes additional problems. Such an inclusive approach creates an abundance of opportunities for readers to develop their understanding, and aids instructors as they plan their coursework. Additional resources are available online, including expanded chapters, enrichment exercises, a detailed course outline, and much more. Introduction to Real Analysis is intended for first-year graduate students taking a first course in real analysis, as well as for instructors seeking detailed lecture material with structure and accessibility in mind. Additionally, its content is appropriate for Ph.D. students in any scientific or engineering discipline who have taken a standard upper-level undergraduate real analysis course.