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English 1B: Carceral Geographies: Reading and Managing Citations

Instructor: Lee

How to Avoid Plagiarism

In order to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit when

  • You use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories.
  • You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, etc., or any other type of information that does not comprise common knowledge.
  • You use quotations from another person's spoken or written word.
  • You paraphrase another person's spoken or written word.

Recommendations

  • Begin the writing process by stating your ideas; then go back to the author's original work.
  • Use quotation marks and credit the source (author) when you copy exact wording.
  • Use your own words (paraphrase) instead of copying directly when possible.
  • Even when you paraphrase another author's writings, you must give credit to that author.
  • If the form of citation and reference are not correct, the attribution to the original author is likely to be incomplete. Therefore, improper use of style can result in plagiarism. Get a style manual and use it.
  • The figure below may help to guide your decisions.

 

This content is part of the Understanding Plagiarism tutorial created by the Indiana University School of Education.

Citation Help

"Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require authors to identify the sources of direct quotations and of any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked."--
Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press), p. 594

Why cite sources?
Whenever you quote or base your ideas on another person's work, you must document the source you used. Even when you do not quote directly from another work, if reading that source contributed to the ideas presented in your paper, you must give the authors proper credit.

Citations allow readers to locate and further explore the sources you consulted, show the depth and scope of your research, and give credit to authors for their ideas. Citations provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work by demonstrating that you have sought out and considered a variety of resources. In written academic work, citing sources is standard practice and shows that you are responding to this person, agreeing with that person, or adding something of your own. Think of documenting your sources as providing a trail for your reader to follow to see the research you performed and discover what led you to your original contribution.

By following these guidelines, you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious violation of Berkeley'sCode of Conduct.

How do you cite sources? 
The means to identify sources is to provide citations within your text linking appropriate passages to relevant resources consulted or quoted. This can be done through in-text parenthetic notes, footnotes, or endnotes. In addition, a bibliography or list of works cited is almost always placed at the end of your paper. The citation system and format you use will be determined by the citation style assigned.

Below are links to guides for the three major styles used for most academic papers or research in the humanities, social sciences, and some scientific disciplines:

  • APA Style Guide (Purdue) - From the American Psychological Association. Often preferred in the fields of psychology and many other social sciences.
  • MLA Style Guide (Purdue) - From the Modern Language Association of America. Often preferred in the fields of literature, arts, humanities, and in some other disciplines.
  • Chicago Manual of Style Guide, 16th Ed. (Purdue) - From the University of Chicago Press. Often preferred in history and many other disciplines.

Where do I find the most authoritative information about these styles?
If you have questions or citations not covered by the guides linked to here, consult one of the following official style manuals. If you consult other, less official manuals or online style guides that purport to explain these style, please be aware that these sometimes contain errors which conflict with the official guides or may refer to earlier editions.

APA Style
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010 (call number: BF76.7.P83 2010, multiple libraries). Official APA style guide.
 
MLA Style
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009 (call number: LB2369.G53 2009, multiple libraries). A somewhat simplified guide, adequate for undergraduate and most other research papers.
 
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2008 (call number: PN147.G444 2008, multiple libraries). For graduate students, scholars, and professional writers (more depth on copyright, legal issues, and writing theses, dissertations, and scholarly publishing).
 
Chicago Style
The Chicago Manual of Style16th ed. 

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996 (call number: LB2369.T8 1996, multiple libraries).

How to Read a Journal Article Citation

chrecker, E. (2003). The Free speech movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s. Pacific Historical Review. 72 (4)  669-670.


The animation above shows an article cited in the APA format (view non-animated version). 

To distinguish an article from other kinds of sources, look for:

  • A journal title in addition to an article title
  • Numbers for volume and/or issue, and sometime issue dates or seasons (e.g. Spring 2014).
  • Page numbers
  • No place of publication or publisher name is listed

Citations for articles accessed online often list the article's stable URL at the end of the citation:

  • Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/phr.2003.72.4.669

How to Read a Book Citation

Goines, D. L. (1993). The Free speech movement: Coming of  age in the 1960's. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.


The animation above shows a book cited in the APA format (view non-animated version). 

To distinguish a book from other kinds of sources, look for:

  • Place of publication (e.g. Berkeley, CA)
  • Publisher name (e.g. Ten Speed Press)
  • No dates, other than a year, are usually included

How to Read a Book Chapter Citation

Hayles, N.K. (2014). Print Is Flat, Code Is Deep: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis. In M. Kinder, T. McPherson, &, N.K. Hayles (Eds.), Transmedia Frictions: The Digital, the Arts, and the Humanities (pp. 20-33). Oakland, CA: University of California Press.


The animation above shows a single chapter from a book cited in the APA format (view non-animated version). 

To distinguish a book chapter from other kinds of sources, look for:

  • Chapter/essay title and book title
  • Author and editor name(s)
  • Page numbers for the chapter
  • Publisher name and place of publication
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