A course on tug-of-war games with random noise : introduction and basic constructions by Marta LewickaThis graduate textbook provides a detailed introduction to the probabilistic interpretation of nonlinear potential theory, relying on the recently introduced notion of tug-of-war games with noise. The book explores both basic and more advanced constructions, carefully explaining the parallel between linear and nonlinear cases. The presentation is self-contained with many exercises, making the book suitable as a textbook for a graduate course, as well as for self-study. Extensive background and auxiliary material allow the tailoring of courses to individual student levels
Compact Star Physics by Jürgen Schaffner-BielichThis self-contained introduction to compact star physics explains important concepts from areas such as general relativity, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and nuclear physics. Containing many tested exercises, and written by an international expert in the research field, the book provides important insights on the basic concepts of compact stars, discusses white dwarfs, neutron stars, quark stars and exotic compact stars. Included are sections on astrophysical observations of compact stars, and present and future terrestrial experiments related to compact stars physics, as the study of exotic nuclei and relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Major developments in the field such as the discovery of massive neutron stars, and a discussion of the recent gravitational wave measurement of a neutron star merger are also presented. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers working on the physics of compact stars, general relativity and nuclear physics.
Developments in mathematical and conceptual physics : concepts and applications for engineers by Harish ParthasarathyThis book presents concepts of theoretical physics with engineering applications. The topics are of an intense mathematical nature involving tools like probability and random processes, ordinary and partial differential equations, linear algebra and infinite-dimensional operator theory, perturbation theory, stochastic differential equations, and Riemannian geometry. These mathematical tools have been applied to study problems in mechanics, fluid dynamics, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, nonlinear dynamical systems, general relativity, cosmology, and electrodynamics. A particularly interesting topic of research interest developed in this book is the design of quantum unitary gates of large size using the Feynman diagrammatic approach to quantum field theory. Through this book, the reader will be able to observe how basic physics can revolutionize technology and also how diverse branches of mathematical physics like large deviation theory, quantum field theory, general relativity, and electrodynamics have many common issues that provide the starting point for unifying the whole of physics, namely in the formulation of Grand Unified Theories (GUTS)
Many-Body Theory of Condensed Matter Systems by Michael G. Cottam; Zahra HaghshenasfardIn this primer to the many-body theory of condensed-matter systems, the authors introduce the subject to the non-specialist in a broad, concise, and up-to-date manner. A wide range of topics are covered including the second quantization of operators, coherent states, quantum-mechanical Green's functions, linear response theory, and Feynman diagrammatic perturbation theory. Material is also incorporated from quantum optics, low-dimensional systems such as graphene, and localized excitations in systems with boundaries as in nanoscale materials. Over 100 problems are included at the end of chapters, which are used both to consolidate concepts and to introduce new material. This book is suitable as a teaching tool for graduate courses and is ideal for non-specialist students and researchers working in physics, materials science, chemistry, or applied mathematics who want to use the tools of many-body theory.
Theory of Electromagnetic Beams by John LeknerThe theory of electromagnetic beams is presented in a simple and physical way, with all necessary mathematics explained in the text. The topics covered are in free-space classical electrodynamics, but contact is made with quantum theory in proofs that causal beams of various kinds can be viewed as superpositions of photons. This follows from explicit expressions for the energy, momentum and angular momentum per unit length for each type of beam. The properties of beams in the focal region, of special experimental and theoretical interest, are discussed in detail. There are eight chapters: on Fundamentals, Beam-like solutions of the Helmholtz equation, Electromagnetic beams, Polarization, Chirality, Comparison of electromagnetic beams, a chapter on Sound beams and particle beams (to show the similarities to and differences from the vector electromagnetic beams), and a final chapter on Measures of focal extent. Ten Appendices cover mathematical or associated physical topics.
History of the plurality of worlds : the myths of extraterrestrials through the ages by Pierre Connes ; edited by James LequeuxModern research has demonstrated that many stars are surrounded by planets--some of which might contain the right conditions to harbor life. This has only reinforced a question that has been tormenting scientists, philosophers and priests since Antiquity: Are there other inhabited worlds beyond our own? This book analyzes the many ways that humans have argued for and depicted extraterrestrial life over the centuries. The first known texts about the subject date from as early as the 6th century BC. Since that time, countless well-known historical characters like Lucretius, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Cusanus, Bruno, Kepler, Descartes, and Huygens contributed to the debate; here, their lesser known opinions on the subject are studied in detail. It is often difficult for the modern mind to follow the thinking of our ancestors, which can only be understood when placed in the relevant context. The book thus extends its scope to the evolution of ideas about cosmology in general, as well as the culture in which these great thinkers wrote. The research is presented with the author's insight and humor, making this an easy and enjoyable read
Neutron Stars by Katia MoskvitchThe astonishing science of neutron stars and the stories of the scientists who study them. Neutron stars are as bewildering as they are elusive. The remnants of exploded stellar giants, they are tiny, merely twenty kilometers across, and incredibly dense. One teaspoon of a neutron star would weigh several million tons. They can spin up to a thousand times per second, they possess the strongest magnetic fields known in nature, and they may be the source of the most powerful explosions in the universe. Through vivid storytelling and on-site reporting from observatories all over the world, Neutron Stars offers an engaging account of these still-mysterious objects. Award-winning science journalist Katia Moskvitch takes readers from the vast Atacama Desert to the arid plains of South Africa to visit the magnificent radio telescopes and brilliant scientists responsible for our knowledge of neutron stars. She recounts the exhilarating discoveries, frustrating disappointments, and heated controversies of the past several decades and explains cutting-edge research into such phenomena as colliding neutron stars and fast radio bursts: extremely powerful but ultra-short flashes in space that scientists are still struggling to understand. She also shows how neutron stars have advanced our broader understanding of the universe--shedding light on topics such as dark matter, black holes, general relativity, and the origins of heavy elements like gold and platinum--and how we might one day use these cosmic beacons to guide interstellar travel. With clarity and passion, Moskvitch describes what we are learning at the boundaries of astronomy, where stars have life beyond death.
Dynamics of Molecular Excitons by Seogjoo J. JangDynamics of Molecular Excitons provides a comprehensive, but concise description of major theories on the dynamics of molecular excitons, intended to serve as a self-contained resource on the topic. Designed to help those new to this area gain proficiency in this field, experts will also find the book useful in developing a deeper understanding of the subject. The starting point of the book is the standard microscopic definition of molecular Hamiltonians presented in commonly accepted modern quantum mechanical notations. Major assumptions and approximations involved in constructing Frenkel-type exciton Hamiltonians, which are well established, but are often hidden under arcane notations and approximations of old publications, are presented in detail. This will help quantum chemists understand the major assumptions involved in the definition of commonly used exciton models. Rate theories of exciton dynamics, such as Förster and Dexter theories and their modern generalizations, are presented in a unified and detailed manner. In addition, important aspects that are often neglected, such as local field effect and the role of fluctuating environments, are discussed. Various quantum dynamics methods allowing coherent dynamics of excitons are presented in a systematic manner in the context of quantum master equations or path integral formalisms. The author also provides a detailed theoretical explanation for the major spectroscopic techniques probing exciton dynamics, including modern two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, with a critical assessment of the implications of these spectroscopic measurements. Finally, the book includes a brief overview of major applications including an explanation of organic photovoltaic materials and natural light harvesting complexes. Covers major theories of exciton dynamics in a consciously concise and easily readable way Bridges the gap between quantum dynamics working with phenomenological exciton Hamiltonian and quantum chemistry construct reliable models amenable for dynamics calculations from ab initio calculations Explores modern nonlinear electronic spectroscopy techniques to probe exciton dynamics, showing how it is applied
Lattice quantum field theory of the Dirac and gauge fields : selected topics by Belal Ehsan BaaquieQuantum Chromodynamics is the theory of strong interactions: a quantum field theory of colored gluons (Yang–Mills gauge fields) coupled to quarks (Dirac fermion fields). Lattice gauge theory is defined by discretizing spacetime into a four-dimensional lattice — and entails defining gauge fields and Dirac fermions on a lattice. The applications of lattice gauge theory are vast, from the study of high-energy theory and phenomenology to the numerical studies of quantum fields.
Lattice Quantum Field Theory of the Dirac and Gauge Fields: Selected Topics examines the mathematical foundations of lattice gauge theory from first principles. It is indispensable for the study of Dirac and lattice gauge fields and lays the foundation for more advanced and specialized studies.
Numerical Methods in Physics with Python by Alex GezerlisBringing together idiomatic Python programming, foundational numerical methods, and physics applications, this is an ideal standalone textbook for courses on computational physics. All the frequently used numerical methods in physics are explained, including foundational techniques and hidden gems on topics such as linear algebra, differential equations, root-finding, interpolation, and integration. Accompanying the mathematical derivations are full implementations of dozens of numerical methods in Python, as well as more than 250 end-of-chapter problems. Numerical methods and physics examples are clearly separated, allowing this introductory book to be later used as a reference; the penultimate section in each chapter is an in depth project, tackling physics problems which cannot be solved without the use of a computer. Written primarily for students studying computational physics, this textbook brings the non-specialist quickly up to speed with Python before looking in detail at the numerical methods often used in the subject.
Quantum Nano-Plasmonics by Witold A. JacakWith examples and clear explanation throughout, this step-by-step approach makes quantum theory of plasmons accessible to readers without specialized training in theory. Jacak uses original research results to offer a fully analytical theory formulation suitable for further development and applications. The theory is focused on the Random Phase Approximation description of plasmons in metallic nano-structures, previously defined for bulk metal. Particular attention is paid to large damping of plasmons in nanostructures including electron scattering and Lorentz friction losses, quantum description of plasmon photovoltaic effect is presented and there is in-depth analysis of plasmon-polariton kinetics in metallic nano-chains. Suitable for students in the field of plasmonics, opto-electronics and photonics, and for researchers active in the field of photo-voltaics, opto-electronics, nano-plasmonics and nano-photonics. Also of help to researchers in soft plasmonics with applications to electro-signalling in neurons.