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Optometry Research Literature for Alumni: Search Tips

PICO Framework for Optometry Research Questions

Use PICO to frame research questions. Determine the population or problem, the intervention, a comparison intervention, and outcomes. Use the keywords for those ideas in your searches.

Population / problem examples: astigmatism, myopia, cataracts, eye tracking, children, adults, aged

Intervention examples: corrective lens, surgery

Comparison interventions are optional

Outcome examples: improved vision

Embase database has a handy PICO search form.

Search Operators and Tips

Boolean Operators

Venn diagram: AND


Venn diagram: OR


Venn diagram: NOT

Use "OR" when combining terms within the same PICO frame.

Use "AND" when combining terms from different PICO frames.

The "NOT" operator is a very blunt instrument; avoid it most of the time.