Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Moffitt Library is opening Aug. 22. Other libraries will have updated services and hours. Learn more.

Optometry Research Literature for Alumni: Search Tips

PICO Framework for Optometry Research Questions

Use PICO to frame research questions. Determine the population or problem, the intervention, a comparison intervention, and outcomes. Use the keywords for those ideas in your searches.

Population / problem examples: astigmatism, myopia, cataracts, eye tracking, children, adults, aged

Intervention examples: corrective lens, surgery

Comparison interventions are optional

Outcome examples: improved vision

Embase database has a handy PICO search form.

Search Operators and Tips

Boolean Operators



Use "OR" when combining terms within the same PICO frame.

Use "AND" when combining terms from different PICO frames.

The "NOT" operator is a very blunt instrument; avoid it most of the time.