What causes disease?
For any "disease" or condition, you could start by considering interactions among environmental and social factors:
Poor diet, resulting from food choices, "causes" nutritional deficiency or obesity in a population.
. . . Keep moving upstream!
Also, consider that how issues are framed is influenced by our assumptions and biases.
It may be useful to have a structure to help guide you when searching.
When you formulate a research question, consider these elements:
Note: It is possible that not all of the above elements will be appropriate for your search topic.
This worksheet (docx) will take you through the process of formulating a search.
PICO is another popular way to structure a search.
PICO stands for:
Worksheet: Developing an Efficient Search Strategy Using PICO (docx): A fillable form that provides a PICO example and prompts you to document synonyms and MeSH headings.
Embase has a PICO search form to guide you.
SPIDER is a search structure used in qualitative research. SPIDER stands for:
Once you have a search strategy, you can try the Polyglot Search tool, which helps to translate a PubMed search into the correct syntax for several other databases, including Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and more.
Below are some examples of questions or lines of inquiry.
Considering what question a research article addresses may help you determine if it is relevant to your needs:
What is a good Research Question? It is a question that:
This blog post has tips on how to write a good research question, including examples of bad, good, and great questions.
To reduce bias, it may be best to pose your question in a neutral manner. Examples:
However, a research question often reflects power and agency. Compare the following:
What is the question being addressed in the study you are reading? Compare:
When you read an article, answer (briefly) the following (source):
Finding a systematic review that addresses the question you are interested in can be very helpful: take a look at the search strategy and databases used in the systematic review for tips on your search.
Primary research presents original research methods or findings for the first time. A primary source is a document (or object) which was written or created during the time under study, by someone who was present during an experiment or experience, and offers an firsthand view of a particular event. Especially in the sciences, an "experience" or "event" includes a research study or process.
In science, primary literature is the original publication of a scientist's new data, results, and theories.
A good way to evaluate whether or not a scientific article is a primary source is whether the article has a Materials and Methods (or similar) section. If the article discusses methods, it is likely primary literature.
Secondary literature does not report new findings, and includes review articles and most scholarly or academic books, including textbooks.
Indexing facilitates more precise search statements, especially for topics that are vague or ambiguous.