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"Harmful fetal effects of beer consumption by pregnant students at college athletic events"
"Determinants of binge drinking among female college students in the United States"
"Alcohol consumption by young adults"
Think about your topic
What terms encapsulate your topic?
Are there synonyms?
What fields of inquiry are relevant: psychology? law/policy? education? anthropology?
Let's talk about indexing!
Do you want articles on labor or articles on labor? Or is it labour?
Do you want articles on HIV (a virus) or articles on HIV diseases (such as AIDS)?
Is epidemiology a concept relating to the causes and distribution of diseases, or is it what epidemiologists do?
Is lead a noun or a verb?
Indexing facilitates more precise search statements, especially for topics that are vague or ambiguous.
Using index terms also helps you avoid the need to think of every possible synonym or alternate spelling of your search terms.
Indexing means the citations in the database are assigned terms from a controlled vocabulary (Not all databases use a controlled vocabulary, however)
Index terms are sometimes called descriptors or thesaurus terms; in PubMed they are calledMedical Subject Headings, or MeSH
Critically Evaluating What You Find
What is evidence?
All research is (potentially) "evidence" and there are no "perfect" studies.
Critically evaluating what you read will help any unearth biases or methodological shortcomings that may be present.
Is there an agenda (bias)?
It's doubtful that any study of humans is without some kind of bias, either in the study design, or in the author's pre-existing beliefs. How bias in methodology was controlled and the significance of bias in any particular study is what's relevant.
Things to consider:
The question being addressed: What kind of research gets funded?
Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions by Higgins; Green (Editors)Healthcare providers, consumers, researchers and policy makers are inundated with unmanageable amounts of information, including evidence from healthcare research. It has become impossible for all to have the time and resources to find, appraise and interpret this evidence and incorporate it into healthcare decisions. Cochrane Reviews respond to this challenge by identifying, appraising and synthesizing research-based evidence and presenting it in a standardized format, published in The Cochrane Library (www.thecochranelibrary.com). The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions contains methodological guidance for the preparation and maintenance of Cochrane intervention reviews. Written in a clear and accessible format, it is the essential manual for all those preparing, maintaining and reading Cochrane reviews. Many of the principles and methods described here are appropriate for systematic reviews applied to other types of research and to systematic reviews of interventions undertaken by others. It is hoped therefore that this book will be invaluable to all those who want to understand the role of systematic reviews, critically appraise published reviews or perform reviews themselves. This title is also available as a mobile App from MedHand Mobile Libraries. Buy it now from Google Play or the MedHand Store.
How to Read a Paper: the basics of evidence-based medicine and healthcare by Trisha GreenhalghRequired reading in many medical and healthcare institutions, How to Read a Paper is a clear and wide-ranging introduction to evidence-based medicine and healthcare, helping readers to understand its central principles, critically evaluate published data, and implement the results in practical settings. Author Trisha Greenhalgh guides readers through each fundamental step of inquiry, from searching the literature to assessing methodological quality and appraising statistics. How to Read a Paper addresses the common criticisms of evidence-based healthcare, dispelling many of its myths and misconceptions, while providing a pragmatic framework for testing the validity of healthcare literature. Now in its sixth edition, this informative text includes new and expanded discussions of study bias, political interference in published reports, medical statistics, big data and more. Offers user-friendly guidance on evidence-based healthcare that is applicable to both experienced and novice readers Authored by an internationally recognised practitioner and researcher in evidence-based healthcare and primary care Includes updated references, additional figures, improved checklists and more How to Read a Paper is an ideal resource for healthcare students, practitioners and anyone seeking an accessible introduction to evidence-based healthcare.
Publication Date: 2019
Meta-Analysis, Decision Analysis, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis by Diana B. PetittiMeta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis are the cornerstones of evidence-based medicine. These related quantitative methods have become essential tools in the formulation of clinical and public policy based on the synthesis of evidence. All three methods are taughtwith increasing frequency in medical schools and schools of public health and in health policy courses at the undergraduate and graduate level. This book is a lucid introduction, and will serve the needs of students taking introductory courses that cover these topics. It will also be useful toclinicians and policymakers who need to understand the quantitative underpinnings of the methods in order to best apply the information that derives from them. The second edition of this popular book adds new material on cumulative meta-analysis as a method to explore heterogeneity. The coverage ofcost-effectiveness analysis has been brought into close alignment with recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Panel on Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health and Medicine. Many of the examples have been replaced with more current examples, and all of the material has been updated to reflect recentadvances in the methods and the emergence of consensus about some previously controversial issues. analysis. These three closely related methods have become even more important for synthesizing research since the first edition was published in 1994. And they have gained legitimacy as tools forguiding health policy.
Publication Date: 2000
Methods of Meta-Analysis: correcting error and bias in research findings by Schmidt; HunterDesigned to provide researchers clear and informative insight into techniques of meta-analysis, the Third Edition of Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. It is the only book that presents a full and usable treatment of the role of study artifacts in distorting study results, as well as methods for correcting results for such biases and errors. nbsp; Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the last thirty-five years, due to its immense impact on the development of cumulative knowledge and professional practice. This text, now in its updated Third Edition, has been revised to cover the newest developments in meta-analysis methods, evaluation, correction, and more. This reader-friendly book is the definitive resource on meta-analysis. nbsp; "This text is the primary source text for psychometric meta-analysis methods." --Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Vanderbilt University nbsp; "The key strength of the book is the complete and thorough coverage of psychometric meta-analysis.nbsp; This technique is not covered in any other meta-analysis text, and is a major contribution to the literature...The meta-analysis field needs to find ways to integrate Hunter and Schmidt's methods into current meta-analysis practice." --Terri D. Pigott, Loyola University of Chicago nbsp; "This is an important text. It is the only book that presents adequate coverage of psychometric meta-analysis. In addition to its use as a textbook, it is an invaluable resource for anyone involved in meta-analytic studies." --Steven Pulos, University of Northern Colorado
Publication Date: 2015
Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis: a step-by-step approach by CooperThe Fifth Edition of Harris Cooper's bestselling Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis: A Step-by-Step Approach offers practical advice on how to conduct a synthesis of research in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. The book is written in plain language with four running examples drawn from psychology, education, and health science. With ample coverage of literature searching and the technical aspects of meta-analysis, this one-of-a-kind book applies the basic principles of sound data gathering to the task of producing a comprehensive assessment of existing research.
The Literature Review Matrix (below) may help you organize what you find in your literature search. This matrix is a simplified version from Health Sciences Literature Review Made Easy (various editions of this book are available at several UCB libraries).
Nearly all the databases you use to find articles, etc., retain your search history. Literature reviews, like epidemiological research, should be rigorous and reproducible. Save or print your search history to help document your search strategy, which will include:
the date of the search(es),
search terms used (keywords; title words; MeSHs, thesaurus terms, descriptors),
any limits (eg, language, publication dates) that you placed on your search.
how many relevant citations you found in each database.
Using PubMed's Clipboard and My NCBI can help with both saving your search strategy and the citations you find.
More information may be found on the PubMed Save Citations tab of this guide.
Off Campus Access to Library Resources
Off-campus access is limited to current UCB faculty, staff and students. Choose one of the following methods:
Library Proxy (aka EZproxy)
When you click on a link to an article, database, etc., (from a library web page) you will be prompted to authenticate via CalNet.
If you click on an article (etc.) link found via a search engine or a non-UCB Library webpage, you will need to use a bookmarklet to access the licensed resource.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Download and install the VPN client to allow access the UC Berkeley licensed resources. Make sure you select Library Access - Full Tunnel VPN when you log on VPN FAQ