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College Writing R4B: The High Stakes in Sports Culture: Citations & Evaluation

Chisako Cole

Introduction to Citations

Why do we cite? Scholars share their work and engage in conversation through publishing their research findings. Video by Marisa Méndez-Brady.

Level Up

Non-Coders' Guide to the Web

  1. How the Web Works - Learn about algorithms, platforms, databases, search engines, and URLs to better understand how information moves online.
  2. Creating Web Content - Explore basic web elements like HTML, CSS, and how to use your Gmail editor to create richer multimedia content.
  3. Remixing Online Content - How to seamlessly (and ethically) integrate images and text from others into your own online work. 

Weeding Out BS

Avoid falling victim to BS (bad sources) by carefully considering the source of information, the information context, and how you interact with information on platforms such as Facebook. 

Research Survival Guide

You already know how to search... but research requires skills that don't involve searching at all. This short guide will help you get started with research at Cal, along with five simple tips to survive (and thrive) in your research.

Cite your Sources

APA Formatting & Style Guides (Purdue OWL website)

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

APA Style (website)

Writing resources from the American Psychological Association.


Zotero App (Online Guide)

Free citation management software to help collect, organize, and share research sources.

Self-Paced Tutorial (Google Slides)

Evaluating Resources

When you encounter any kind of source, consider:

  1. Authority - Who is the author? What is their point of view? 
  2. Purpose - Why was the source created? Who is the intended audience?
  3. Publication & format - Where was it published? In what medium?
  4. Relevance - How is it relevant to your research? What is its scope?
  5. Date of publication - When was it written? Has it been updated?
  6. Documentation - Did they cite their sources? Who did they cite?

See also: Scholarly & Popular Sources

Evaluating Information Worksheet (Google Doc)

Use these questions to help decide whether a source is a good fit for your research project.