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This guide will help you identify elementsto distinguish one kind of citation from another (a book from a journal article, for example). The citations below are in the APA style, but the elements you should look out for (authors, editors, publication information...) will be present in some form in most common citation styles.
To distinguish a book chapter from other kinds of sources, look for:
Chapter/essay title and book title
Author and editor name(s)
Page numbers for the chapter
Publisher name and place of publication
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.
Date for a specific day
Newspaper title in addition to article title
Page numbers that reflect newspaper sections (often a number and letter, e.g. 1A)
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Government agencies listed as authors (e.g. National Institute of Mental Health)
Publishers that begin with federal or state names (e.g. U.S..., or California State...)
Publication identifiers that don't follow volume/issue format (e.g. ADM 90-1679)
Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server version 1.3 documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html
Full URL at the end of the citation
An article and website title
Websites may often lack author names or specific publication dates
Tip: Go to the URL listed to confirm the kind of source. URLs may also be listed for journal articles retrieved from online databases, for example.
Example citations for the sources in this box are taken from the Purdue OWL guide.
There are different style guides for formatting your citations. Ask your instructor which format they prefer, and then follow these links for more information about citation formats in each style: