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Physical Education, Sports Medicine & Physiology: Primary Sources

Primary sources?

A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study, and present during an experience or time period and offers an inside view of a particular event.

Primary vs. Secondary research

To determine whether a source is primary or secondary research.

Primary research presents original research methods or findings for the first time.
 -- A journal article, book, or other publication that presents new findings and new theories, usually with the data.
 -- A newspaper account written by a journalist who was present at the event they are describing, is a primary source (an eye-witness, first-hand account), and may also be primary "research".

Secondary research does not present new research but provides a compilation or evaluation of previously presented material.
-- A scientific article summarizing research or data, such as in Annual Review of Genetics, or Biological Reviews
-- An encyclopedia entry and entries in most other Reference books
 -- A textbook.

If one of the experts interviewed in the Mother Jones article published a study in JAMA (The Journal of the American Medical Association) documenting for the first time the effect that handguns have on youth mortality rates, only the JAMA article would be considered primary research.

Science Primary Sources

In SCIENCE, PRIMARY LITERATURE is the original publication of a scientist's new data, results, and theories.
A rule of thumb for evaluating a scientific article as a primary source is that it includes a "Materials and Methods" section.  If so, it is primary.

Journal articles may be primary literature, there are many articles published which are not primary literature, particularly review articles which do not report new findings but review known data.

Some websites constitute primary literature (here, here and here, for example) which include credible primary data.
Note: "primary" is not an indicator of the quality of the item (see Retraction Watch); for that we use peer reviewed, and to a lessor extent, the designation academic / scholarly.

SECONDARY LITERATURE includes literature review articles, textbooks, and most scholarly or academic books (that repeat information already published). The vast majority of popular periodical publications (magazines, trade journals, newspapers) are usually considered tertiary or popular literature, in that they repeat information already published and are usually written for a non-technical audience .

Note: the vast majority of empirical articles (used in Education and Social Sciences) are probably primary literature, but not all empirical articles are primary. Empirical articles often contain these sections: Introduction / Literature review / Methodology / Results / Discussion / Conclusion / References

What are they? where to find them?

Types of primary sources include:
 -- ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records
 -- CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art
 -- RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings


  • Diary of Anne Frank - Experiences of a Jewish family during WWII 
  • The Constitution of Canada - Canadian History 
  • A journal article reporting NEW research or findings 
  • Weavings and pottery - Native American history 
  • Plato's Republic - Women in Ancient Greece 

Search keyword for Primary Sources in the Library Catalog to find direct references to primary source material.
Perform a keyword search for your topic and add one of the words below:

  • charters
  • correspondence
  • diaries
  • early works
  • interviews
  • manuscripts
  • oratory
  • pamphlets
  • personal narratives
  • sources
  • speeches
  • letters
  • documents
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