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Silicon Raj: Making a Difference to America's Future

1899

Four Sikhs arrive in San Francisco, according to an article in the San Francisco Chronicle.

 

1907

White mobs drive Indian workers of out of Bellingham and Everett, Washington.

 

1913

California Alien Land Act prevents "aliens ineligible for citizenship" from owning or leasing property in California.

 

1917

The Immigration Act of 1917 prohibits immigration from an Asian "barred" zone, including India, and imposes a literacy test on immigrants.

 

1922

The Cable Act provides that any American woman marrying an alien ineligible for citizenship will lose her own citizenship.

 

1923

In United States vs. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court rules that Indians cannot become naturalized U.S. citizens.

 

1924

The National Origins Act sets up a quota scheme to control the number of immigrants coming into the United States; the Oriental Exclusion Act prohibits most immigration from Asia.

1931

The Cable Act is repealed.

 

1946

The Luce-Cellar Act extends the right to become naturalized citizens to Indians and Filipinos and sets up an immigration quota from each country of 100 people per year.

 

1947

India wins independence from Great Britain on 14 August 1947; Pakistan is created from predominantly Muslim districts in India.

 

1948

California Supreme Court rules that anti-miscegenation laws are unconstitutional.

 

1956

Dalip Singh Saund is elected Congressman from California's 29th Congressional District; California Alien Land Law repealed.

1965

The Hart-Celler Act abolishes the "national origins" quota scheme established in 1924, replacing it with a set quota of 20,000 from each country per year with a total of 170,000 immigrants allowable.

 

1968

Students strike at San Francisco State University to demand establishment of ethnic studies program.

 

1969

Students at the University of California, Berkeley strike for establishment of ethnic studies program.

 

1980

Refugee Act creates separate status for immigrant refugees, affecting immigrants fleeing communal violence in India and immigrants from Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

 

1990

Immigration Act increases the total immigration quota to 700,000 per year.

 

2000

Passage of the H-1B visa bill raises the H-1B visa quota from 115,000 to 195,000 annually for three years.
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