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MCB 32: Introduction to Human Physiology: Citing your sources

Citing your sources

Website citations

  1. Author/creator name(s), if available; may be organization if no individual authors/creators are named
  2. Year of publication, copyright or latest update, if available
  3. Title of page, article or video
  4. Name of platform, sponsoring organization and/or website
  5. Date accessed: The most recent date you viewed the information you are citing on the website. Including the date is important because websites frequently change over time.
  6. URL or DOI (What is a DOI?)



Journal article citations

  1. Author name(s)
  2. Year of publication
  3. Title of article
  4. Title of journal
  5. Volume number
  6. Issue number (omitted for many citation styles in the sciences and for this assignment)
  7. Page numbers (for articles published both in print and online) or article number (for online-only articles)
  8. For articles published online: URL or DOI (omitted for some citation styles)


  • 6 or fewer authors:
    Freeman PR, Goodin A, Troske S, Strahl A, Fallin A, Green TC. 2017. Pharmacists’ role in opioid overdose: Kentucky pharmacists’ willingness to participate in naloxone dispensing. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 57: S28-S33.
  • More than 6 authors:
    Barnosky AD, et al. 2012. Approaching a state shift in Earth's biosphere. Nature 486: 52-58.
  • Published online only, with an article number rather than page numbers:
    Ali-Murthy Z, Lott SE, Eisen MB, Kornberg TB. 2013. An essential role for zygotic expression in the pre-cellular Drosophila embryo. PLoS Genetics 9: e1003428. (Note: not all article numbers begin with "e")
  • Article title ending in a question mark or other punctuation mark:
    Ray A, Camiolo M, Fitzpatrick A, Gauthier M, Wenzel SE. 2020. Are we meeting the promise of endotypes and precision medicine in asthma? Physiological Reviews 100: 983-1017.


Drug package insert citations

From a website:

  1. Company name
  2. Month and year of revision (sometimes there can be multiple revisions in a single year, so the year alone won't distinguish the version you're citing)
  3. Name of drug (alternate name for drug) [package insert]
  4. Name of website sponsor or website title
  5. Date accessed
  6. URL for insert


In print:

  1. Name of drug (alternate name for drug) [package insert]
  2. Month and year of revision
  3. Place of publication
  4. Company name


  • Risperdal (risperidone) [package insert]. January 2019. Titusville, NJ: Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies.


Book citations

For a book written by one or more author(s):

  1. Author(s)
  2. Year of publication
  3. Title of book
  4. Publisher
  5. Page numbers
  6. For e-books: URL or DOI


  • Book by one or more author(s):
    Beazley JC, Field S. 2018. Cannabis on Campus: Changing the Dialogue in the Wake of Legalization. Routledge. Pages 121-122.

For a chapter in an edited collection:

  1. Chapter author(s)
  2. Year of publication
  3. Title of chapter
  4. Page numbers
  5. Name(s) of editor(s)
  6. Title of book
  7. Publisher
  8. For e-books: URL or DOI


  • Chapter in an edited collection:
    Zalman D, Bar-Sela G. 2017. Chapter 89: Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids for cancer patients: Multiple palliative indications together with promising laboratory antineoplastic effects. Pages 859-868 in Preedy VR, ed. Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies. Academic Press.

For more help

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Elliott Smith
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Bioscience, Natural Resources
& Public Health Library