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Justice and Equity in Transportation and Urbanism

Justice and equity manifests in many different ways in transportation and urbanism. This guide presents a number of resources to help you engage with the work necessary to make these systems just.

Articles and Books about Justice and Equity in Active Transportation

Active transportation - usually walking or biking - encompasses transportation modes that are physically active and were traditionally non motorized.  Active transportation often intersects with issues of public health, race, gender, enforcement, and safety. 

Readings on justice and equity in Active Transportation

Adkins, A., Makarewicz, C., Scanze, M., Ingram, M., & Luhr, G. (2017). Contextualizing Walkability: Do Relationships Between Built Environments and Walking Vary by Socioeconomic Context? Journal of the American Planning Association, 83(3), 296–314.


Agyeman, J. (2020, May 27). Poor and black “invisible cyclists” need to be part of post-pandemic transport planning too. The Conversation. (BIPOC author)


Badger, E. (2020, July 20). The Pandemic Has Pushed Aside City Planning Rules. But to Whose Benefit? The New York Times. 


Barajas, J. M. (2018). Not all crashes are created equal: Associations between the built environment and disparities in bicycle collisions. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1), 865–882. (BIPOC author)


Barajas, J. M. (2019). Perceptions, People, and Places: Influences on Cycling for Latino Immigrants and Implications for Equity. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 0739456X19864714. (BIPOC author)


Barajas, J. M. (2020). Supplemental infrastructure: How community networks and immigrant identity influence cycling. Transportation, 47, 1251–1274. (BIPOC author)


Biehl, A., Chen, Y., Sanabria-Véaz, K., Uttal, D., & Stathopoulos, A. (2019). Where does active travel fit within local community narratives of mobility space and place? Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 123, 269–287. (BIPOC author)

Blickstein, S., & Brown, C. (2016). Bicycling Among Black and Latino Women. Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center. (BIPOC author)


Braun, L. M. (2018). Geographies of (Dis)Advantage in Walking and Cycling: Perspectives on Equity and Social Justice in Planning for Active Transportation in U.S. Cities [Ph.D., The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]. 


Brown, C. (2016, September). Fear: A Silent Barrier to Bicycling in Black and Brown Communities. ITE Journal, 86(9), 22–24. (BIPOC author)


Brown, C., Deka, D., Jain, A., Grover, A., & Xie, Q. (2019). Evaluating spatial equity in bike share systems. (BIPOC author)


Butler, T. (2020, June 9). Why We Must Talk About Race When We Talk About Bikes. Bicycling. (BIPOC author)


Ann Niles Active Transportation Lecture featuring Tamika Butler. (2017, November 8). (BIPOC author)


Castillo-Manzano, J. I., & Sánchez-Braza, A. (2013). Can anyone hate the bicycle? The hunt for an optimal local transportation policy to encourage bicycle usage. Environmental Politics, 22(6), 1010–1028. 


Coughenour, C., Clark, S., Singh, A., Claw, E., Abelar, J., & Huebner, J. (2017). Examining racial bias as a potential factor in pedestrian crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 98, 96–100.


Field, A., Wild, K., Woodward, A., Macmillan, A., & Mackie, H. (2018). Encountering bikelash: Experiences and lessons from New Zealand communities. Journal of Transport & Health, 11, 130–140.


García, I., & Khan, S. (2018). Active Transportation and Perceptions of Safety: A Case Study of a Regional Trail and a Transit Corridor in Salt Lake City, Utah. Focus: The Journal of Planning Practice & Education, 14(1), 37–43. (BIPOC author)


Goddard, T., Kahn, K. B., & Adkins, A. (2015). Racial bias in driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 33, 1–6.


Golub, A., Hoffman, M. L., Lugo, A. E., & Sandoval, G. F. (Eds.). (2016). Bicycle Justice and Urban Transformation: Biking for All? Routledge. (BIPOC author)  


Hoffmann, M. L. (2016). Bike Lanes are White Lanes: Bicycle Advocacy and Urban Planning. University of Nebraska Press.


Kim, K., & Garcia, I. (2021). Active Commute to School, Physical Activity, and Health of Hispanic High School Students in the United States. In D. Oviedo, N. Villamizar Duarte, & A. Marcela Ardila (Eds.), Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin American Cities: Evidences, Concepts, and Methods for more Inclusive Cities (pp. 145–164). Emerald Publishing. (BIPOC author)


Kravetz, D., & Noland, R. B. (2012). Spatial Analysis of Income Disparities in Pedestrian Safety in Northern New Jersey: Is There an Environmental Justice Issue? Transportation Research Record, 2320(1), 10–17.


Law, S. F., & Karnilowicz, W. (2015). ‘In Our Country it’s Just Poor People who Ride a Bike’: Place, Displacement and Cycling in Australia. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 25(4), 296–309.


Lee, R. J., Sener, I. N., & Jones, S. N. (2017). Understanding the role of equity in active transportation planning in the United States. Transport Reviews, 37(2), 211–226. 


Lubitow, A. (2017). Narratives of Marginalized Cyclists: Understanding Obstacles to Utilitarian Cycling Among Women and Minorities in Portland, OR (NITC-SS-994). Transportation Research and Education Center.


Lubitow, A., & Miller, T. R. (2013). Contesting Sustainability: Bikes, Race, and Politics in Portlandia. Environmental Justice, 6(4), 121–126.


Lugo, A. E. (2018). Bicycle/race: Transportation, culture & resistance. (BIPOC author)


Lusk, A. C., Anastasio, A., Shaffer, N., Wu, J., & Li, Y. (2017). Biking practices and preferences in a lower income, primarily minority neighborhood: Learning what residents want. Preventive Medicine Reports, 7, 232–238.


Lusk, A. C., Willett, W. C., Morris, V., Byner, C., & Li, Y. (2019). Bicycle Facilities Safest from Crime and Crashes: Perceptions of Residents Familiar with Higher Crime/Lower Income Neighborhoods in Boston. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(3), 484.


Maciag, M. (n.d.). Pedestrians Dying at Disproportionate Rates in America’s Poorer Neighborhoods. Retrieved August 12, 2020, from


McCullough, S. R., Lugo, A., & Stokkum, R. van. (2019). Making Bicycling Equitable: Lessons from Sociocultural Research. (BIPOC author)


McNeil, N., Broach, J., & Dill, J. (2018, February). Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity. ITE Journal, 88(2).


McNeil, N., Dill, J., MacArthur, J., Broach, J., Howland, S., & Howland, S. (2017). Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Insights from Residents of Traditionally Underserved Neighborhoods. Portland State University.


Roberts, J. D., Mandic, S., Fryer, C. S., Brachman, M. L., & Ray, R. (2019). Between Privilege and Oppression: An Intersectional Analysis of Active Transportation Experiences Among Washington D.C. Area Youth. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8), 1313. 


Roe, D. (2020, July 27). Black Cyclists Are Stopped More Often Than Whites, Police Data Shows. Bicycling.



Sanders, T., Rabinowitz, K., & Conarck, B. (2017, November 16). Walking While Black. ProPublica. (BIPOC author)


Siemiatycki, M., Smith, M., & Walks, A. (2016). The politics of bicycle lane implementation: The case of Vancouver’s Burrard Street Bridge. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 10(3), 225–235.


Stehlin, J. (2014). Regulating Inclusion: Spatial Form, Social Process, and the Normalization of Cycling Practice in the USA. Mobilities, 9(1), 21–41.


Stehlin, J. G. (2019). Cyclescapes of the Unequal City.


Steinbach, R., Green, J., Datta, J., & Edwards, P. (2011). Cycling and the city: A case study of how gendered, ethnic and class identities can shape healthy transport choices. Social Science & Medicine, 72(7), 1123–1130.


Sulaiman, S. (2016, September 20). Justice-Oriented Mobility Advocates to “Untokenize” Active Transportation Movement at November Convening. Streetsblog Los Angeles. (BIPOC author)


Thomas, D. (2020, June 8). ‘Safe Streets’ Are Not Safe for Black Lives. Bloomberg.Com. (BIPOC author)


Transportation Research and Education Center. (2019). Equity in Bike Share Research.


Vreugdenhil, R., & Williams, S. (2013). White line fever: A sociotechnical perspective on the contested implementation of an urban bike lane network. Area, 45(3), 283–291.

Wild, K., Woodward, A., Field, A., & Macmillan, A. (2018). Beyond ‘bikelash’: Engaging with community opposition to cycle lanes. Mobilities, 13(4), 505–519.


Zavestoski, S., & Agyeman, J. (2015). Incomplete streets: Processes, practices and possibilities. (BIPOC author)


E-Books on Active Transportation, Justice and Equity

Here are some of the e-books version of some of the books listed above.